What happens during the Sprints:
- Sprint Planning meetings are held to plan what will go into a Sprint (a fixed period of time used to deliver parts of the final product). The Product Owner prioritizes these requirements and therefore decides on the contents of the Sprint Backlog.
- These stories (features, functionalities or deliverables) make up the Sprint Backlog, so the Sprint Backlog is a list of all stories that will be developed in the next Sprint.
- The Team breaks down (expands) these stories into tasks.
- The Team then takes 2 to 4 weeks to deliver an agreed amount of stories.
- The Team holds a Daily Scrum meeting (standup) of 15 minutes each day to collaborate with each other.
Sprint Planning overview:
- The first thing to do in each Sprint is the Sprint Planning, which is a time-boxed meeting attended by all 3 scrum roles and usually fixed to 8 hours for a one month Sprint or shorter for Sprints of less than a month.
- The Development Team should estimate the capacity of work it can deliver in a single Sprint from the already ranked and ordered Product Backlog with the highest value items on top.
- As soon as the Product Backlog is mature enough, with necessary number of stories the Development Team can start the first Sprint without waiting until the Product Backlog is 100% planned with all requirements gathered and cleared.
- The Sprint Backlog will be ready at the end of this meeting and the Development Team should be able to describe what items they will deliver through the Sprint, and how they will do it.
Product Backlog to Sprint Backlog
- The Development Team selects an appropriate number of items from the top of the Product Backlog, and puts them in the Sprint Backlog, to deliver in the current Sprint.
- The Product Owner also ensures that the items (stories) are easy to understand.
- The amount of work for each item is estimated by the Development Team and the total amount of work of the selected Product Backlog items is close to the estimated capacity of the Development Team.
- Following the selection of the items to the Sprint Backlog, the Scrum Team should draft a Sprint Goal, an objective that should be met within the Sprint through the implementation of the Product Backlog.
- The Scrum Goal provides guidance to the Development Team on why it is building the Increment.
- This is a sample Sprint Goal: We are going to enable all the essential parts of the website store to set up a complete purchase process. This makes other features of the website more meaningful to the customer.
- The Product Backlog should be ordered in a way that facilitates setting Sprint Goals.
- The scope of the Sprint, which is made up of the items selected from the Product Backlog, might need to have more details through the Sprint, which should be aligned with the Sprint Goal, and likely re-negotiations for them should be done in presence of the Product Owner.
- When the items to deliver are selected and the Sprint Goal is agreed, it is time to plan how they will deliver the items into a Done product Increment and realize the Sprint Goal.
- Having a detailed plan for the first few days is enough and the Development Team can prepare detailed plans for the rest of the work later on.
- A detail plan, as shown in the next figure, is a breakdown of a Product Backlog item into detailed tasks needed to be done in order to create the item.
- Each task might have estimates, dependencies, and similar information to make tracking possible.
- These tasks are defined by the Development, explaining how they will deliver each item, and are created at the Sprint Planning meeting or throughout the Sprint.
The Sprint Backlog consists of the following:
- The Sprint Goal
- Selected items from the Product Backlog, to be delivered through the Sprint
- A detailed plan (tasks) for turning the selected items (stories) into Done Increment of the product and to realize the Sprint Goal
- The three Sprint Backlog elements (Sprint Goal, Product Backlog items selected for the Sprint, and the detailed plan) should be shown on the board.
- The board should also have an easy way for tracking the tasks and items in To Do, Doing and Done columns.
- Extra tasks have been added to the lower ranked items (items #3 to #5), which is the ongoing detail planning done through the Sprint.
- Items in the Sprint Backlog usually have the same order they had in the Product Backlog, therefore, the Development Team should work on the higher ordered items first.
Scrum artifacts of management activities are created to increase transparency of information related to ]project delivery and provide opportunities for inspection and adaptation.
There are six artifacts in Scrum:
- Product Backlog: an ordered list of everything , aka all of the stories, that might be needed in the final product
- Sprint Backlog: selected items (stories) from the Product Backlog to be delivered through a Sprint, along with the Sprint Goal and plans for delivering the items, aka the tasks needed to complete the Sprint Goal
- Increment: set of all the Product Backlog items completed so far in the project, up to the end of a certain Sprint
- Definition of Done: shared understanding of what it means for a story to be considered complete
- Monitoring Project Progress: performance measurement and forecast for the whole project
- Monitoring Sprint Progress: performance measurement and forecasts for a single Sprint